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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 and shares its northern border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region. At its foot is a densely populated city location, the home of over 30,000 Gibraltarians and other citizenships.

An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar from Spain in 1704 throughout the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne. The area was subsequently ceded to Great Britain "in perpetuity" under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Throughout World War II it was a crucial base for the Royal Navy as it managed the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, which is just 13km at this marine "choke point". It remains tactically important to this day, with half the world's seaborne trade travelling through the strait. Today Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourist, online gaming, financial services, and freight ship refuelling services.

The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians overwhelmingly declined propositions for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and once again in 2002. Under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar governs its own affairs, though some powers, such as defence and foreign relations, remain the duty of the British government.

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